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Thread: (S) Diet – Nutrition – Supplements – Prevention – Lifestyle

  1. #11
    [#6]
    Prostate cancer prevention with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors: concepts and controversies
    [2018]

    https://journals.lww.com/co-urology/Abstract/2018/01000/Prostate_cancer_prevention_with_5_alpha_reductase. 8.aspx

    Abstract

    Purpose of review We review the concepts surrounding prostate cancer prevention strategies with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) and the controversies associated with their use.

    Recent findings Updated data have shown no increased risk of death from the diagnosis of higher risk cancer; however, 5-ARIs remain controversial and not approved for prostate cancer prevention.

    Summary The main theme of the review identifies the success of reducing insignificant prostate cancer and the controversy with the increased association of higher risk prostate cancer by approximately 20%. The reduction was shown to be most significant reduction in low-grade prostate cancer. The initial concern about 5-ARI use was that it could potentially increase high-risk prostate cancer leading to higher mortality in those men. Higher mortality has not been seen in follow-up data; however, 5-ARIs continue to have a black box warning and are not approved for prostate cancer prevention.
    [Emphasis mine]
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-16-2018 at 06:50 PM.

  2. #12
    [#7]
    A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial evaluating the effect of a polyphenol-rich whole food supplement on PSA progression in men with prostate cancer—the UK NCRN Pomi-T study
    [2014, Full Text]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020278/

    Abstract

    Background:
    Polyphenol-rich foods such as pomegranate, green tea, broccoli and turmeric have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in laboratory models involving angiogenesis, apoptosis and proliferation. Although some have been investigated in small, phase II studies, this combination has never been evaluated within an adequately powered randomised controlled trial.

    Methods:
    In total, 199 men, average age 74 years, with localised prostate cancer, 60% managed with primary active surveillance (AS) or 40% with watchful waiting (WW) following previous interventions, were randomised (2:1) to receive an oral capsule containing a blend of pomegranate, green tea, broccoli and turmeric, or an identical placebo for 6 months.

    Results:
    The median rise in PSA in the food supplement group (FSG) was 14.7% (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 3.4–36.7%), as opposed to 78.5% in the placebo group (PG) (95% CI 48.1–115.5%), difference 63.8% (P=0.0008 ). In all, 8.2% of men in the FSG and 27.7% in the PG opted to leave surveillance at the end of the intervention (χ2 P=0.014). There were no significant differences within the predetermined subgroups of age, Gleason grade, treatment category or body mass index. There were no differences in cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, C-reactive protein or adverse events.

    Conclusions:
    This study found a significant short-term, favourable effect on the percentage rise in PSA in men managed with AS and WW following ingestion of this well-tolerated, specific blend of concentrated foods. Its influence on decision-making suggests that this intervention is clinically meaningful, but further trials will evaluate longer term clinical effects, and other makers of disease progression.
    I believe the commercial supplement tested, Pomi-T, was originally formulated specifically for this study.

    First Forum post: https://www.cancerforums.net/threads/52727-Got-my-doc-s-OK-for-a-supplement-post-surgery?highlight=Pomi-t
    Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention and Management? [2015, Full Text]

    http://www.cancernet.co.uk/pp-polyphenols-cancer-bjmp.pdf

    Discussing the above study and the effects of Pomi-T:
    A further analysis of MRI images demonstrated the cancers size and growth patterns correlated with PSA changes, excluding the possibility that this was just a PSA rather than tumour effect.

    Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer [2015, Full Text]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4346900/

    Abstract

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment.
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-16-2018 at 09:29 PM.

  3. #13
    [#8]
    Fish oil and prostate cancer: Effects and clinical relevance
    [2017, Full Text]

    http://www.cancertm.com/article.asp?issn=2395-3977;year=2017;volume=3;issue=3;spage=80;epage=86; aulast=Liang

    Abstract

    Men who intake high ratios of fish oil or omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, relative to omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints regarding the association between omega-3 FA consumption and risk of prostate cancer are studded with controversial results. However, many clinical trials have shown that fish oil could decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. The anticancer properties of anticancer drugs could be greatly improved when combined with fish oil. We briefly reviewed fish oil and relevant omega-3 FAs as well as early investigations in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.
    ...

    Conclusion

    The evidence from in vitro and preclinical studies indicates that fish oil, especially DHA and EPA, is a natural substance that can be favorably used for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. The decreased side effects of anticancer drugs when combined with fish oil could increase prostate cancer patients' health and improve their quality of life. However, more patient-based clinical trials are needed to implement fish oil for regular use by prostate cancer patients.
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-16-2018 at 06:50 PM.

  4. #14
    [#9]
    Chinese Medicines in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: From Formulas to Extracts and Compounds
    [2018, Full Text]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5872701/

    Abstract

    In order to fully understand the progresses and achievements in Chinese medicines for the treatment of prostate cancer, we summarize all the available reports on formulas, extracts, and compounds of Chinese medicines against prostate cancer. A number of clinical trials verified that traditional Chinese formulas had some unique advantages in the treatment of prostate cancer. Many Chinese medicine extracts could protect against prostate cancer, and many compounds isolated from Chinese traditional medicines showed a clear anti-prostate cancer effect. However, Chinese medicines are facing many problems regarding their multicomponent nature, complicated mechanisms of action, and high doses required for therapy. Herein, we review the functions of Chinese medicines in prostate cancer and focus on their mechanisms. The review will deepen the understanding of Chinese medicines potential in the anti-prostate cancer field. In addition, we put forward a question concerning the current research on Chinese medicines: in order to better illustrate that Chinese medicines can be used in the clinical treatment of prostate cancer, should our research focus on formulas, extracts, or compounds?
    Large number of references; however, I don't know how many were in peer-reviewed journals. Also, promising results from in vitro studies don't always pan out in us humans.

    In this and similar articles you will often see mention of apoptosis--this term means normal, programmed cell death. Researches look for substances that induce apoptosis in tumor cells, so they die off just like healthy cells do, instead of living on and wreaking havoc like zombies.
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-16-2018 at 06:50 PM.

  5. #15
    [#10]
    Mechanisms of Physical Activity Behavior Change for Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
    [2018, Full Text]

    https://academic.oup.com/abm/advance-article/doi/10.1093/abm/kax055/4833180

    Abstract

    Background
    Exercise is beneficial for prostate cancer survivors. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of physical activity (PA) behavior change is imperative.

    Purpose
    The ENGAGE study was an exercise intervention for prostate cancer survivors, which improved vigorous physical activity (VPA) at postintervention and follow-up. The purpose of this study was to assess (a) whether the intervention improved social cognitive determinants of behavior and (b) the extent to which social cognitive determinants mediated the effect of the exercise intervention on VPA.

    Methods
    Overall, 147 men consented to be involved in the study (intervention = 54, usual care = 93). Data from baseline, postintervention (12 weeks) and follow-up (6 months) were used in this analysis. Social cognitive determinants were measured using appropriate measures. VPA was measured using an adapted version of the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire.

    Results
    Compared with the control condition, men in the intervention condition had higher task self-efficacy postintervention (+16.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] +9.19 to +23.31; effect size [d] = 0.85, p < .001) and at follow-up (+12.58; 95% CI = +4.45 to +20.71, d = 0.50, p = .002). Task self-efficacy partially mediated the effect of the exercise intervention on VPA (indirect effect: B = 19.90; 95% CI 1.56 to 38.25, p = .033).

    Conclusion
    The intervention improved the belief among prostate cancer survivors that they could perform challenging exercises for longer periods of time, which partially explained the positive effect of the intervention on VPA.
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-16-2018 at 06:49 PM.

  6. #16
    [#11]
    Flipping the switch: Dietary fat, changes in fat metabolism may promote prostate cancer metastasis: Research reveals interplay between genes, environment in metastatic prostate disease
    [2018, News article with references]

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/01/180115120542.htm

    Date: January 15, 2018

    Source: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

    Summary: Researchers have shed new light on the genetic mechanisms that promote metastasis in the mouse model and also implicated the typical Western high-fat diet as a key environmental factor driving metastasis.
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-16-2018 at 05:00 PM.

  7. #17
    [#12] The current evidence on statin use and prostate cancer prevention: are we there yet? [2018, Full Text]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830185/

    Abstract

    An increasing amount of data supports an inverse association between statin use and cancer risk. The findings for prostate cancer, particularly advanced disease, are the most promising of all cancers studied. Use of these agents seems to also be associated with improved prostate-cancer-specific survival, particularly in men undergoing radiotherapy, suggesting usefulness of statins in secondary and tertiary prevention. Some study results might be influenced by increased PSA screening and health-conscious behaviour in statin users but these factors are unlikely to completely account for observed beneficial effects. The epidemiological evidence is supported by preclinical studies that show that statins directly inhibit prostate cancer development and progression in cell-based and animal-based models. The antineoplastic effect of statins might arise from a number of cholesterol-mediated and non-cholesterol-mediated mechanisms that affect pathways essential for cancer formation and progression. Understanding these mechanisms is instrumental in drug discovery research for the development of future prostate cancer therapeutics, as well as in designing clinical trials to test a role for statins in prostate cancer prevention. Currently, sufficient data are lacking to support the use of statins for the primary prevention of prostate cancer and further research is clearly warranted. Secondary and tertiary prevention trials in men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer might soon be performed.
    [Emphasis mine]

    Simvastatin Therapy for Drug Repositioning to Reduce the Risk of Prostate Cancer Mortality in Patients With Hyperlipidemia [2018, Full Text]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5874326/

    Abstract

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the western world, and the mortality rate from PCa in Asia has been increasing recently. Statins are potent inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and are commonly used for treating hyperlipidemia, with beneficial effects for cardiovascular disease and they also exhibit anti-cancer activity. However, the protective effects of statins against PCa are controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of two types of statins (simvastatin and lovastatin) and the mortality rate of PCa patients by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 15,264 PCa patients with hyperlipidemia records and medical claims from the Registry of Catastrophic Illness were enrolled. The patients were divided into two cohorts based on their statin use before the diagnosis of PCa: statin users (n = 1,827) and non-statin users (n = 1,826). The results showed that patients who used statins exhibited a significantly reduced risk of mortality from PCa [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73–0.97]. Analysis of the cumulative defined daily dose (DDD) indicated that patients who were prescribed simvastatin ≥ 180 DDD had a dramatically decreased risk of death from PCa (adjusted HR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.51–0.77). This population-based cohort study demonstrated that statin use significantly decreased the mortality of PCa patients, and that this risk was inversely associated with the cumulative DDD of simvastatin therapy. The results of this study revealed that statins may be used for drug repositioning and in the development of a feasible approach to prevent death from PCa.

    ...

    Conclusion
    This study demonstrated that statin prescription has effectively reduced the deaths of PCa patients with hyperlipidemia. The mortality risk of patients with PCa is inversely associated with a high cumulative DDD of simvastatin. Therefore, statins, cholesterol-lowering agents, can be drug repurposed and used in a preventive application for protecting against death from PCa. However, large, long-term clinical analysis and experimental studies on the biological mechanisms of statin therapy are required to further validate statins as a means of reducing PCa mortality
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-16-2018 at 06:54 PM.

  8. #18
    [#13]
    Green Tea Catechins for Prostate Cancer Prevention: Present Achievements and Future Challenges
    [2017, Full Text]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5488006/

    Abstract
    Green tea catechins (GTCs) are a family of chemically related compounds usually classified as antioxidant molecules. Epidemiological evidences, supported by interventional studies, highlighted a more than promising role for GTCs in human prostate cancer (PCa) chemoprevention. In the last decades, many efforts have been made to gain new insights into the mechanism of action of GTCs. Now it is clear that GTCs’ anticancer action can no longer be simplistically limited to their direct antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties. Recent contributions to the advancement of knowledge in this field have shown that GTCs specifically interact with cellular targets, including cell surface receptors, lipid rafts, and endoplasmic reticulum, modulate gene expression through direct effect on transcription factors or indirect epigenetic mechanisms, and interfere with intracellular proteostasis at various levels. Many of the effects observed in vitro are dose and cell context dependent and take place at concentrations that cannot be achieved in vivo. Poor intestinal absorption together with an extensive systemic and enteric metabolism influence GTCs’ bioavailability through still poorly understood mechanisms. Recent efforts to develop delivery systems that increase GTCs’ overall bioavailability, by means of biopolymeric nanoparticles, represent the main way to translate preclinical results in a real clinical scenario for PCa chemoprevention.

    Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Green Tea Catechins for Prostate Cancer Prevention [2015, Full Text]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4596745/

    Abstract
    Preclinical, epidemiological and prior clinical trial data suggest that green tea catechins (GTCs) may reduce prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of Polyphenon E® (PolyE), a proprietary mixture of GTCs, containing 400 mg (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) per day, in 97 men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and/or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). The primary study endpoint was a comparison of the cumulative one-year PCa rates on the two study arms. No differences in the number of PCa cases were observed: 5/49 (PolyE) versus 9/48 (placebo), P=0.25. A secondary endpoint comparing the cumulative rate of PCa plus ASAP among men with HGPIN without ASAP at baseline, revealed a decrease in this composite endpoint: 3/26 (PolyE) versus 10/25 (placebo), P<0.024. This finding was driven by a decrease in ASAP diagnoses on the Poly E (0/26) compared to the placebo arm (5/25). A decrease in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) was observed on the PolyE arm [−0.87 ng/ml (95%CI: −1.66, −0.09)]. Adverse events related to the study agent did not significantly differ between the two study groups. Daily intake of a standardized, decaffeinated catechin mixture containing 400 mg EGCG per day for 1 year accumulated in plasma and was well tolerated but did not reduce the likelihood of PCa in men with baseline HGPIN or ASAP.
    ...
    Conclusion
    Daily intake of a standardized catechin mixture containing EGCG, 200 mg BID, for one year, accumulated in plasma and was well tolerated but did not reduce the likelihood of a subsequent PCa diagnosis in men with baseline HGPIN or ASAP. Our study confirmed the observations of Epstein (8 ) and others (53, 54) that the risk of PCa on biopsy within one year following a diagnosis of HGPIN is only about 20% if good sampling is initially performed. In addition, the very low one-year rate of PCa observed in men with ASAP in this trial suggests that earlier reports may have over-estimated the true risk of cancer in that cohort, possibly due to poor initial sampling. Apart from meticulously selecting promising agents, validated biomarkers and study endpoints, future PCa chemoprevention trials should ideally enroll larger cohorts of men at higher risk for this disease, perhaps with durations of interventions that continue beyond one year.


    [Emphasis mine]
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-16-2018 at 03:25 PM.

  9. #19
    [#14]
    Vitamin E and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial
    (SELECT) [2011, Full Text]

    https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1104493

    Abstract
    Context The initial report of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) found no reduction in risk of prostate cancer with either selenium or vitamin E supplements but a statistically nonsignificant increase in prostate cancer risk with vitamin E. Longer follow-up and more prostate cancer events provide further insight into the relationship of vitamin E and prostate cancer.

    Objective To determine the long-term effect of vitamin E and selenium on risk of prostate cancer in relatively healthy men.

    Design, Setting, and Participants A total of 35 533 men from 427 study sites in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico were randomized between August 22, 2001, and June 24, 2004. Eligibility criteria included a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 4.0 ng/mL or less, a digital rectal examination not suspicious for prostate cancer, and age 50 years or older for black men and 55 years or older for all others. The primary analysis included 34 887 men who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 8752 to receive selenium; 8737, vitamin E; 8702, both agents, and 8696, placebo. Analysis reflect the final data collected by the study sites on their participants through July 5, 2011.

    Interventions Oral selenium (200 μg/d from L-selenomethionine) with matched vitamin E placebo, vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) with matched selenium placebo, both agents, or both matched placebos for a planned follow-up of a minimum of 7 and maximum of 12 years.

    Main Outcome Measures Prostate cancer incidence.

    Results This report includes 54 464 additional person-years of follow-up and 521 additional cases of prostate cancer since the primary report. Compared with the placebo (referent group) in which 529 men developed prostate cancer, 620 men in the vitamin E group developed prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 99% CI, 1.004-1.36, P = .008 ); as did 575 in the selenium group (HR, 1.09; 99% CI, 0.93-1.27; P = .18 ), and 555 in the selenium plus vitamin E group (HR, 1.05; 99% CI, 0.89-1.22, P = .46). Compared with placebo, the absolute increase in risk of prostate cancer per 1000 person-years was 1.6 for vitamin E, 0.8 for selenium, and 0.4 for the combination.

    Conclusion Dietary supplementation with vitamin E significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer among healthy men.

  10. #20
    [#15]
    Resveratrol and pterostilbene as a microRNA-mediated chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy in prostate cancer [2017]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28662290

    Abstract

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin occurring in grapes, red wines, peanuts, berries and other vegetables that has been reported to provide protection against several human diseases, including metabolic diseases and cancer. More than one thousand preclinical investigations, performed in vitro and in animal models, indicate that resveratrol efficaciously affects the development and progression of various tumors such as breast, lung, prostate and colon carcinomas, leukemias, skin tumors and melanomas. On this basis, resveratrol and its derivatives are under investigation in humans as cancer chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agents. Resveratrol mechanism of action has been widely studied in cancer cells and in experimental models of senescence, inflammation, obesity and metabolic diseases. Its molecular targets act at different levels: (1) specific molecular pathways (like NF-B, MAPK/JNK/p38 Kinase, PKC, PI3K-AKT and several others); (2) epigenetic control of gene transcription through sirtuin activation; (3) cell division cycle and differentiation; (4) apoptosis and autophagy; (5) cellular redox homeostasis. In addition, the phytoalexin might modify microbiome composition and mimic hormone activity. Particularly, we recently reported that the molecule is able to substitute insulin in adipogenesis induction of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human bone marrow. The relevance of these mechanisms and their translation in clinical therapy will be discussed.
    Were a number of in vitro studies of reseveratrol and PC in 2017, but I haven't seen a study or review of it as a dietary supplement. I started taking it about 2 years ago, not intended for PC prevention (it didn't work!), but because I found it increases my mental klaritee (that was a joke ) Anyway, if interested, you can do your own googling. Take this as purely anecdotal.
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 04-22-2018 at 11:34 PM.

 

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