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Thread: (I) Surgical Treatment

  1. #51
    Does early depressive mood expire following radical retropubic prostatectomy in patients with localized prostate cancer?
    [2019, Full Text]



    In this study, the pattern of depressive mood in patients following radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer (PCa) was determined. A total of 30 patients (aged 68.036.1 years) who were diagnosed with localized PCa and underwent RP within 1 month entered the study. Evaluations included body mass index, prostate-specific antigen, testosterone, underlying disease, international prostate symptom score and quality of life (QoL), international index of erectile function as well as Beck depression inventory (BDI), both at the initial stage and 3 months later. Basic demographic data, laboratory results, and questionnaires were analyzed statistically. The BDI score significantly decreased 3 months after the surgery. In correlation analysis, BDI was related with the international prostate symptom score but not with the underlying disease, QoL or international index of erectile function. Body mass index was identified as one of the risk factors to decrease the probability of BDI score (≥3) significantly. Underlying disease increased the probability of BDI score. In the assessment of the correlation between BDI and each subscale, sadness, self-dislike, self-criticalness, and worth-lessness showed high correlation. In the early period, depressive mood was improved at the short-term follow-up in localized PCa patients after RP. Voiding symptoms were only related with the depressive mood, but not with other parameters, including sexual function. The depressive mood had no effect on the QoL in the early stage.

  2. #52
    Pre- and post-radical prostatectomy testosterone levels in prostate cancer patients



    Radical prostatectomy is one of the treatment of choices for localized prostate cancer. Published data show that radical prostatectomy is associated with both an increase and decrease in testosterone levels. This study aimed to document the changes in pre- and postoperative serum testosterone levels after radical prostatectomy along with the associations between serum testosterone levels and prostate cancer profiles in Thai population. Localized and locally advanced prostate cancer patients who elected to have radical prostatectomy without prior androgen deprivation therapy were included in the study. Patients' demographic data, pre- and postoperative serum testosterone levels, sex hormone binding globulin, albumin, prostate-specific antigen, and final pathologic reports were collected. Eighty-five prostate cancer patients were included in this study. Mean age was 67.32 years. Mean pre- and postoperative serum testosterone levels were 424.95 ng/dL and 371.94 ng/dL, respectively (p-value < 0.001). There was a greater testosterone reduction in patients with a final pathologic report of Gleason 4 + 3 and above compared with those with a Gleason 3 + 3 and 3 + 4 (p-value = 0.001). No significant association between preoperative testosterone levels and final Gleason scores was observed. This study documented significant postoperative testosterone reductions in prostate cancer patients after a radical prostatectomy. Patients with high Gleason grades had greater testosterone reductions. These findings may have clinical implications for the prediction of postoperative hypogonadal states in prostate cancer patients

  3. #53
    Robot-assisted and laparoscopic vs open radical prostatectomy in clinically localized prostate cancer: perioperative, functional, and oncological outcomes: A Systematic review and meta-analysis
    [2019, Full Text]



    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the perioperative, functional, and oncological outcomes and cost of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) comparing with open radical prostatectomy (ORP) in men with clinically localized prostate cancer through all prospective comparative studies.

    A comprehensive literature search was performed in August 2018 using the Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies including patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were eligible for study inclusion. Cumulative analysis was conducted using Review Manager v. 5.3 software.

    Two RCTs and 9 prospective studies were included in this systematic review. There were no significant differences between RARP/LRP and ORP in overall complication rate, major complication rate, overall positive surgical margin (PSM) rate, ≤pT2 tumor PSM rate, ≥pT3 tumor PSM rate. Moreover, RARP/LRP and ORP showed similarity in biochemical recurrence (BCR) rate at 3, 12, 24 months postoperatively. Urinary continence and erectile function at 12 months postoperatively between RARP and ORP are also comparable. RARP/LRP were associated with significantly lower estimated blood loss [mean difference (MD) -749.67, 95% CI -1038.52 to -460.82, P = .001], lower transfusion rate (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.30, P < .001) and less hospitalization duration (MD -1.18, 95% CI -2.18 to -0.19, P = .02). And RARP/LRP required more operative time (MD 50.02, 95% CI 6.50 to 93.55, P = .02) and cost.

    RARP/LRP is associated with lower blood loss, transfusion rate and less hospitalization duration. The available data were insufficient to prove the superiority of any surgical approach in terms of postoperative complications, functional and oncologic outcomes.
    [Emphasis mine]

  4. #54
    The estimated prevalence of missed positive lymph nodes based on extent of lymphadenectomy at radical prostatectomy



    •The discovery of positive lymph nodes at radical prostatectomy has implications for subsequent cancer management.

    •Our predictive model estimated that 59% of all positive lymph nodes are missed due to low lymphadenectomy extent.

    •A high proportion of positive lymph nodes were missed across all risk categories.

    •Increased extent of lymphadenectomy was associated with improved overall survival.

    To determine practice patterns for the extent of lymphadenectomy at radical prostatectomy and associations with detection of pN1 prostate cancer, as well as the impact of lymphadenectomy extent on underdetection of pN1 disease and overall survival.

    Materials and methods
    Prostatectomy cases in the NCDB from 2004 to 2013 were included. Lymphadenectomy extent was defined by the number of nodes examined. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the top quartile of lymph node count and pN1 disease. This model was created to estimate the expected prevalence of pN1, and generated observed over expected ratios. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the effect of lymph node count on overall survival.

    Lymphadenectomy was performed in 209,789 (60%) of 358,522 surgeries, with pN1 in 6,428 (3.08%). Increasing quartiles for lymph node count was associated with pN1 (3–5 nodes OR 2.11; 6–8 nodes OR 3.12; ≥9 nodes OR 5.91, all P< 0.001). The logistic regression model suggested that 59% of pN1 cases are missed due to low lymph node count. Increased lymph node count was associated with increasing pN1 detection (O/E: 1–2 nodes = 0.18; 3–5 nodes = 0.37; 6–8 nodes = 0.56; ≥9 nodes = 1.01). Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrated that the top quartile for lymph node count had improved overall survival (HR 0.93, CI 0.87–0.99, P= 0.03).

    Increasing lymphadenectomy extent was associated with pN1 disease on multivariate analysis, and logistic regression modeling suggested a substantial proportion of pN1 were missed due to low lymphadenectomy extent across all risk groups.

  5. #55
    Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles Is Associated with Improved Time to Continence After Radical Prostatectomy But Not Long-term Continence Rates: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis



    The aetiology of urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy (RP) is incompletely understood. In particular, it is unclear whether there is a relationship between neurovascular bundle (NVB) sparing and post-RP urinary continence.

    To review systematically the association of NVB sparing in RP with postoperative urinary continence outcomes and synthesise the results in a meta-analysis.

    Evidence acquisition
    This study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis statement. PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched (December 2013), yielding 3413 unique records. A total of 27 longitudinal cohort studies were selected for inclusion. Studies were evaluated using a predefined criteria adapted from the Cochrane Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies.

    Evidence synthesis
    Data from 13 749 participants in 27 studies were synthesised in a meta-analysis. An assessment of the study methodology revealed a high risk of bias due to differences in baseline characteristics, outcome assessment, and the likely presence of unreported confounding factors such as meticulous apical dissection. Meta-analysis demonstrated that nerve sparing (NS) compared with non–nerve sparing (NNS) resulted in improved early urinary continence rates up to 6 mo postoperatively. Beyond this time, no significant difference was observed. This effect was seen most clearly for bilateral NS compared with NNS. A sensitivity analysis of prospective cohort studies revealed consistent results.

    This analysis demonstrates an association between NS and improved urinary continence outcomes up to 6 mo postoperatively. NS in men with poor preoperative erectile function should be considered in the context of oncologic risk stratification because it may improve time to continence recovery. The underlying cause of the relationship between NS and continence is unknown. It may represent preservation of the intrapelvic somatic nerves supplying the rhabdosphincter or the influence of other confounding factors. Future research should be directed towards improving understanding of the anatomy of urinary continence and the pathophysiology of post-RP incontinence.

    Patient summary
    We found that avoiding damage to the nerves around the prostate improves urinary continence in the first 6 mo after surgery. After this time, there is no difference in continence between men who had these nerves removed and those who had them saved. This finding could be due to a true effect of saving these nerves or to a number of other factors affecting the research.

  6. #56
    Significant association between urethral length measured by magnetic resonance imaging and urinary continence recovery after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy
    [2019, Full Text]



    To determine the clinical predictive factors affecting the recovery from postoperative urinary incontinence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

    Materials and methods
    We consecutively analyzed 320 patients who underwent RARP between January 2012 and March 2015. The restoration of urinary continence was defined as follows: the use of no pads/no leakage of urine or the use of a safety pad. Preoperative covariates were statistically assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to investigate their predict factor to recovery of urinary incontinence. Therefore, in this study, we sought to identify predictors of early urinary continence status in a single-center retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent RARP.

    Continence rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the catheter was removed were 44%, 71%, 83%, and 93%, respectively. Age, body mass index, and prostate volume had no significant association with urinary continence recovery. In contrast to this, longer preoperative membranous urethral length (MUL) was significantly associated with earlier postoperative continence recovery. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that longer preoperative MUL is significantly associated with continence recovery at 1 month (P = 0.0235).

    Approximately 70% of patients achieved urinary continence within 3 months after RARP. Multivariate analysis showed that age, body mass index, and prostate volume had no significant association with urinary continence recovery. Preoperative MUL assessed by magnetic resonance imaging was an independent predictor of early recovery from urinary incontinence after RARP.
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 08-10-2019 at 04:32 PM.

  7. #57
    Influence of the facility caseload on the subsequent survival of men with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy



    Several studies have investigated the relationship between experience measured by caseload and oncological outcomes, economics, and access to care for prostate cancer care. Oncological outcomes have been limited to biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Questions remain regarding the more definitive measures of outcomes and their relationship with caseload.

    The National Cancer Database was used to investigate the outcomes of radical prostatectomy in the United States. With overall survival (OS) as the primary outcome, the relationship between the facility annual caseload (FAC) for all prostate cancer encounters and the facility annual surgical caseload (FASC) for those requiring radical prostatectomy was examined with a Cox proportional hazards model. Four volume groups were defined by caseload: <50th percentile (volume group 1 [VG1]), 50th to 74th percentiles (volume group 2 [VG2]), 75th to 89th percentiles (volume group 3 [VG3]), and ≥90th percentile (volume group 4 [VG4]). By FAC/FASC, 11%/8%, 17%/18%, 25%/26%, and 47%/49% of patients were treated in VG1 through VG4, respectively.

    Between 2004 and 2014, 488,389 patients underwent radical prostatectomy. At a median follow-up of 60.75 months, the median OS was not reached. There was a significant OS benefit as the caseload increased. For FAC, the adjusted OS difference between VG1 and VG4 at 90th percentile survivorship reached 13.2 months (hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.23-1.36; P < .0001). For FASC, this was 11.3 months (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.192-1.321; P < .0001).

    There is a statistically significant OS advantage from performing radical prostatectomy at a facility with a high annual caseload. Caseload measured by all prostate cancer encounters is a better predictor of favorable outcomes than the number of surgeries performed at a facility.

    • An in‐depth analysis of 488,389 cases of radical prostatectomy performed in more than 1000 facilities over a 10‐year period showed better survival when surgery was performed in facilities with more experience and greater caseload.
    • A survival difference of up to 13 months was observed when comparing patients treated at less experienced versus more experienced centers.
    • Experience across all stages of prostate cancer was a stronger predictor of survival outcome than just the number of surgeries performed.

  8. #58
    Does the Time Interval from Biopsy to Radical Prostatectomy Affect the Postoperative Oncologic Outcomes in Korean Men?



    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common type of cancer in men worldwide and the fifth most common cancer among Korean men. Although most PCs grow slowly, it is unclear whether a longer time interval from diagnosis to treatment causes worse outcomes. This study aimed to investigate whether the time interval from diagnosis to radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with clinically localized PC affects postoperative oncologic outcomes.

    We retrospectively analyzed data of 427 men who underwent RP for localized PC between January 2005 and June 2016. The patients were divided into two groups based on the cutoff median time interval (100 days) from biopsy to surgery. The associations between time interval from biopsy to surgery (< 100 vs. ≥ 100 days) and adverse pathologic outcomes such as positive surgical margin, pathologic upgrading, and upstaging were evaluated. Biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival rates were analyzed and compared based on the time interval from biopsy to surgery.

    Pathologic upgrading of Gleason score in surgical specimens was more frequent in the longer time interval group and showed marginal significance (38.8% vs. 30.0%; P = 0.057). Based on multivariable analysis, an association was observed between time interval from biopsy to surgery and pathologic upgrading (odds ratio, 2.211; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3423.645; P = 0.002). BCR-free survival did not differ based on time interval from biopsy to surgery, and significant association was not observed between time interval from biopsy to surgery and BCR on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio, 1.285; 95% CI, 0.7952.077; P = 0.305).

    Time interval ≥ 100 days from biopsy to RP in clinically localized PC increased the risk of pathologic upgrading but did not affect long-term BCR-free survival rates in Korean men.
    [Emphasis mine]

  9. #59
    Decision Regret after Radical Prostatectomy Does Not Depend upon Surgical Approach: 6-Year Follow-Up of a Large German Cohort Undergoing Routine Care



    Numerous studies have compared outcomes of open (ORP) and robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), but only one study focused on patient satisfaction and regret. Our study aimed to evaluate intermediate-term decision regret after ORP and RARP.

    The "HAROW" study analyzed localized prostate cancer patient treatments (≤T2c N0 M0) in Germany from 2008 to 2013. For 1260 patients after retropubic ORP or RARP, we collected a intermediate-term follow-up.

    The response rate was 76.8% (936/121. Four hundred four patients underwent RARP, and 532 underwent ORP. RARP patients showed more self-determined behavior; they reported an active role in surgical decision making (RARP 39% vs. 24% ORP, p<0.001) and surgical approach (RARP 52% vs. 18% ORP, p<0.001). RARP patients actively participated treating hospital selection (RARP 25% vs. 11% ORP, p<0.001) used the internet often (RARP 87% vs. 72% ORP, p<0.001), and traveled increased distances (RARP 65 km vs. 40 km ORP, p<0.001). Overall, decision regret was low, with a mean score of 14 19 (0 = no regret; 100 = high regret). Multivariate analysis showed that erectile function (OR 3.2), urinary continence (OR 1., freedom of recurrence (OR 1.6), an active role in decision making (OR 2.2), and shorter follow-up time (OR 0.9 per year) were predictive of low decision regret (score<15).

    Intermediate-term functional and oncologic outcomes as well as autonomous decision making and follow-up time influenced decision regret after radical prostatectomy. The surgical approach was not associated with intermediate-term decision regret.

  10. #60
    Incidence and Risk Factors of Pulmonary Complications after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: A Retrospective Observational Analysis of 2208 Patients at a Large Single Center
    [2019, Full Text]


    Abstract: Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of prostate cancer. RALP requires the patient to be placed in the steep Trendelenburg position, along with pneumoperitoneum, which may increase the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). This large single-center retrospective study evaluated the incidence and risk factors of PPCs in 2208 patients who underwent RALP between 2014 and 2017. Patients were divided into those with (PPC group) and without (non-PPC group) PPCs. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess risk factors of PPCs. PPCs occurred in 682 patients (30.9%). Risk factors of PPCs included age (odds ratio [OR], 1.023; p = 0.001), body mass index (OR, 1.061; p = 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (OR, 1.653; p = 0.008 ), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application (OR, 0.283; p < 0.001). The incidence of postoperative complications, rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and duration of ICU stay were significantly greater in the PPC group than in the non-PPC group. In conclusion, the incidence of PPCs in patients who underwent RALP under pneumoperitoneum in the steep Trendelenburg position was 30.9%. Factors associated with PPCs included older age, higher body mass index, hypoalbuminemia, and lack of PEEP.
    Last edited by DjinTonic; 10-14-2019 at 04:12 PM.


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